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Research papers

AWTA has achieved a world wide reputation for its research work and now has one of the largest teams of scientists working on raw wool metrology.

Our scientists regularly report on their work to the technical forums of the International Wool Textile Organisation (IWTO). Papers published by the Company's scientists are available for reference purposes and academic use.

Access to research publications produced by other organisations, when approval is provided, is also available.

Papers are grouped in the following categories, with pdf documents available for download and viewing.

Reviews and General Information

Definition of ‘Merino’PDF

Wool Metrology - Past & Current Trends, Future RequirementsPDF

Objective Measurements - more than pretty numbersPDF

Yield Testing

Review of IWTO-19 Appendix K Requirements - Measurement of Ash Content by NIRAPDF

The Minimum Number of Acceptable Subsample Results Required in an IWTO Certificate for Wools of UK OriginPDF

Measurement of IWTO-19 Ash Content by NIR AnalysisPDF

Use of NIR Technology for Predicting IWTO-19 Residual Ash in a Commercial LaboratoryPDF

Use of NIR to Predict Residual Ash in the IWTO-19 Yield TestPDF

Use of NIR to Predict Residual Ash in the IWTO-19 Yield Test - 2nd trialPDF

A Review of the Range Checks Used When Testing for Wool Base in Accordance with IWTO-19PDF

Review of the Subsample Mass Limit for Yield Testing of Scoured WoolPDF

Evaluation of a Prototype Blender for Core Samples of Scoured or Carbonised WoolPDF

The Effect of Aqueous & Dual-Solvent Scouring on Wool Base Calculated According to IWTO-19PDF

Laboratory Scouring Commercially Dual Solvent Scoured Wool During Yield Determination by IWTO-19-85(E)PDF

Summary of the Trial Which Established The Equation For Calculating The Australian Carbonising YieldPDF

Fibre Diameter

The Relationship between New Zealand Merino Fleece Measurement Produced at NZPAC Ltd & their Corresponding Core Test ResultsPDF

In-shed Test Reports - Recommended Sampling ProceduresPDF

Supplementary Report to the In-shed Sampling GroupPDF

NSW In-shed Sampling Trials - Summary ReportPDF

Implications of the CVD of Fibre Diameter on Measuring Mean Fibre DiameterPDF

Importance of the CVD of Fibre Diameter in Selecting TopsPDF

Fundamental Principles of Fibre Diameter MeasurementPDF

The Measurement Precision & Evaluation of the Diameter Profiles of Single Wool FibresPDF

The Relationship Between Mean Fibre Diameter Measurements by Airflow & Laserscan for South African WoolsPDF

Comparison Between Measurement of 'Dry' & 'Conditioned' Wool Samples in a Water Filled LaserscanPDF

What are the Limits to Wool Fibre Fineness MeasurementPDF

Certification of Standard Deviation of Diameter of Raw Wool Measured by OFDAPDF

Calibrating Laserscan for Raw Wool Measurement & an Evaluation of an Alternative Transport FluidPDF

Effect of Fibre Relaxation on Mean Fibre Diameter/Fibre Diameter Distribution Measured by Laserscan & OFDAPDF

Effect of Snippet Length & Fibre Relaxation on Mean Fibre Diameter, Fibre Diameter Distribution & Fibre Curvature Measured by LASERSCAN & OFDAPDF

Relationship Between Airflow & OFDA Measurements for South African Greasy Wool and Commercial Mill TopsPDF

Relationships Between Mean Fibre Diameter Measurements by Airflow, OFDA & Laserscan for South African Wools from Different BreedsPDF

Relationship between Core Test Measurements by Airflow, Laserscan & OFDA Merino Wool Classed at NZPACPDF

Relationship b/w NZ Merino Fleece Measurement Produced at NZPAC Ltd & their Core Test ResultsPDF

Effects of Standardising Measurement Range of Mean/Standard Deviation of Fineness from Laserscan/OFDAPDF

Comparison of Histograms from OFDA, Projection Microscope & Laserscan for Wool TopsPDF

Measurement of Fineness on Superfine Wool - Effect of Revised Laserscan Calibration on ComparisonsPDF

Fundamental Principles of Fibre Fineness Measurement - Airflow InstrumentPDF

Effect of Fibre Medullation on Laserscan Diameter MeasurementPDF

Variable Test Specimen Mass Airflow Round TrialPDF

Effect of Cell Snippet Position on Laserscan Diameter MeasurementPDF

Comparison of Diameter Measurement Tech from Interwoollabs Inter Rnd Trials for Wool TopsPDF

Use of Variable Test Specimen Mass when Measuring Mean Fibre Diameter by AirflowPDF

Commercial Implications of the Coefficient of Variation of Fibre Diameter on Measuring Mean Fibre DiameterPDF

Measurement of the Fineness of Superfine Wool - A Comparison of Airflow, Laserscan & OFDAPDF

The Effect of Between Fibre Coefficient of Variation on the Fibre Fineness Measured by AirflowPDF

Importance of CVD of Blends of Wool Tops when Measured by Airflow, Laserscan & OFDAPDF

Impact of Test Result Precision on On-Farm DecisionsPDF

Using OFDA2000 & Fleecescan to Prepare Lots for Sale & Sheep Selection - A Case StudyPDF

Feed Gaps & Fibre Variations - Development of Along Staple Diameter Measurement as a Diagnostic Tool for Improved Grazing Management. 2004 ResultsPDF

Fibre Curvature

Standardisation of Mean Fibre Curvature (Series 14 IH Calibration Top) - Calibration for Minicored Scoured-WoolPDF

Standardisation of Mean Fibre Curvature Using the Series 14 Calibration Top as a ReferencePDF

Proposal for Calibrating Laboratory Preparation Systems and Instruments to Measure Curvature on Raw WoolPDF

Measuring Fibre Curvature - Key IssuesPDF

The Effect of Histogram Class Interval on the Calculation of Mean Fibre Curvature & Standard Deviation of Fibre Curvature & Standard Deviation of Fibre CurvaturePDF

Analysis of the Curvature of Wool Offered for Auction in AustraliaPDF

The Influence of Preparation Techniques on the Measurement of Fibre CurvaturePDF

Fibre Curvature Morphometry & MeasurementPDF

An Objective Technique for Measurement of Fibre Crimp Curvature - Part 1 - MetrologyPDF

Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Fibre Curvature Measurement on NZ WoolsPDF 

Staple Measurements & Top Predictions

Final TEAM-1, TEAM-2 & TEAM-3 ReportsPDF

Final TEAM-3 ReportPDF

Final Report on the Performance of the Style InstrumentsPDF

A Between-Instrument Comparison of Staple Crimp Frequency Measured by Crimp MetersPDF

Predicting Processing Results of Sale Lots - Part 1 - Performance of TEAM Hauteur EquationsPDF

Predicting Processing Results of Sale Lots - Part 2 - Development of a Sale Lots Formula for HauteurPDF

Predicting Processing Results of Sale Lots - Part 3 - Performance of TEAM EquationsPDF

A Review of the Proposed TEAM-3 Formula for Predicting HauteurPDF

TEAM-3 Processing Trial - Final ReportPDF

TEAM-3 Processing Trial - November 2003 UpdatePDF

TEAM-3 Processing Trial - May 2003 UpdatePDF

TEAM-3 Progress Report - December 2002PDF

TEAM Final Report 1985PDF

Preliminary Analysis of TEAM-3 DatabasePDF

The Examination of Decrimped Staple Length to

Deriving Additional Parameters from the Staple Force vs Extension Curve Measured by ATLASPDF

Measurement of Staple Crimp Frequency Part 1 - Manual Measurements using the Crimp GaugePDF

Measurement of Staple Crimp Frequency Part 2 - The Crimp Meter - DescriptionPDF

Measurement of Staple Crimp Frequency Part 3 - The Crimp Meter - Initial EvaluationPDF

Differentiate Atypical Wool Types as a Potential Aid to Purchasing & Processing PredictionPDF

Report on Trials Evaluating Additional Measurements 1981-1988PDF

Industry Review of the TEAM Prediction FormulaePDF

Fleece Measurement

Precision of OFDA2000 & Fleecescan for Estimating the Diameter Characteristics of Fleeces - A Case StudyPDF

Sampling Variation Over A FleecePDF

Colour of Raw Wool and Wool Sliver

Final Report of the IWTO Colour Working GroupPDF

Report of the IWTO Colour Working GroupPDF

International Rnd Trial Comparing Certified Tile Calibrations to Standard Wool Top Calibrations for Greasy WoolPDF

International Rnd Trial Comparing Certified Tile Calibrations to Standard Wool Top CalibrationsPDF

Calibration of Colour Instruments Using a Certified Tile & a Standard Wool TopPDF

Use of Regression Equations to Predict the Colour of Wool Using Ceramic Tile CalibrationPDF

Performance of Various Calibrations When Measuring Certified Ceramic Colour StandardsPDF

Scoured Wool

The Effect of Conditioning Time on Mean Fibre Diameter ResultsPDF

Review of the Subsample Mass Limit for Yield Testing of Scoured WoolPDF

Comparisons of Moisture Content of Wool in Bulk by the Malcam Equipment & the Standard IWTO ProceduresPDF

Wool Sliver and Top

Comparisons Between OFDA4000 & IWTO Standardised Methods for Measurements Made on Wool Tops - Part 1 Diameter CharacteristicsPDF

Comparisons Between OFDA4000 & IWTO Standardised Methods for Measurement Made on Wool Tops - Part 2 Length CharacteristicsPDF

INTERWOOLLABS Report on Round Trials Completed in 2004PDF

A Review of the Distribution of Fibre Length in TopsPDF

Modelling of Length Distributions in the OFDA 4000PDF

Report on Equivalence Round Trials for the Almeter AL2000PDF

Foundations & Metrology of the Almeter Wool Fibre Length MeasurementPDF

Application of a Raw Signal Filter on the Precision & Accuracy of the Almeter AL2000PDF

Investigations into the Repeatability & Precision of the Re-configured Almeter - AL2000PDF

Uniformity of Wool Characteristics

Processing of Classed Grower & Bulk Class Lots of Different Uniformity IndexPDF

Prediction of Wool Preparation Category for Classed Fleece Lines using a Uniformity IndexPDF

Assessing the Variability of Classed Fleece Lines Using a Uniformity IndexPDF

Impact of Test Result Precision on On-Farm DecisionsPDF

Wool Contamination

Fibre MedullationPDF

Definitions of Medullation Threshold Values used by Different Testing MethodsPDF

The Precision of Dark & Medullated Fibre Testing of NoilPDF

Dark & Medullated Fibre Contamination in Merino Fleece from Damara Crossbred Lambs; Top & Noil ProductsPDF

Results from Rnds 0-2 from the Interlaboratory Proficiency Program for Analysis of Pesticides on Raw WoolPDF

Robust Extraction & Clean-up Method for Analysis of Organophosphates, Synthetic Pyrethroids, Organochlorines, Diflubenzuron & Triflumuron on Raw WoolPDF

Relationship btw Greasy & Processed Dark Fibre Contamination from DAMARA Crossbreds in Merino WoolPDF

Australian Wool Innovation 2004 Global Survey of Dark & Medullated FibresPDF

Determination of the Contaminant Threshold Level for Medullated Fibres in Merino Wool FabricsPDF

Residues of Pesticides in Australian Wool 2004-2005 - Results from AWI SurveyPDF

Status Report on Dark & Medullated Fibre Testing of Presale Core Samples and Review of the Detection Threshold for Contaminant MedullationPDF

Preliminary Estimates of the Between-Laboratory Variability from Rounds 1 - 4 of the IWTO Wool Residue Interlaboratory Proficiency Program 1999 - 2001PDF

Development of an Improved Test for Detection of Dark & Medullated Fibres in Presale Core SamplesPDF

Update of Progress in Dark & Medullated Fibre Risk ProjectPDF

Development of a Quantified Risk Factor for Presence of Dark/Medullated Fibres in Aust Merino WoolPDF

Managing the Risk of Dark & or Medullated Fibre ContaminationPDF

Merino Crossbreeding & Objectionable Sheep Fibres - The Problem & Potential SolutionPDF

Exotic Sheep Breeds in Australia - A Status ReportPDF

Detection of Pigmented & Medullated Fibre in Core Samples of Commercial Sale Lots from Merino Ewes Mated to Damara Fat Tail RamsPDF

Fibre Medullation, Marketing & ManagementPDF

Wool Contamination - Pigmented & Heavily Medullated FibresPDF

Dark Fibre Control in Sheep & WoolPDF

Dark Fibre Risk & PredictionPDF

Dark Fibre Contamination in Wool - Its Prediction & RamificationsPDF

Preparation & Dark Fibre ContaminationPDF

Formulae and Calculations

Mathematical Combination by Subtraction of Measured Fibre Diameter Distributions of Greasy & Scoured WoolPDF

Mathematical Combination of Measured Fibre Diameter Distribution Histograms for Greasy & Scoured WoolPDF